Cool and frozen storage in wholesale
(Opbevaring på køl og frys i engros)


Many products need to be stored cold or frozen before delivery to retailers.

Process description

The present data refer to 1) cold storage (5oC in a 52 m3 cooling room) and 2) frozen storage (-20oC in a 52 m3 freezer). The cooling technology is modern (2002) but otherwise unknown.

Data collection and treatment

Data on cool and frozen storage  are acquired through telephone interview with Nordic.

The energy consumption, Ep for cool and  frozen storage of a given product can be roughly estimated by following formula:

Ep = Es × 100%/u × Vp × t




Es is the specific energy consumption of the cooling or freezing room (kWh per m3 per day). See below.


u is the degree of utilisation of the storage room (%). 50% considered is a reasonable estimate.


Vp is the volume of the considered product (m3).


t is the time of the storage (days).

Technical scope

The present data include electricity consumption for keeping products cool or frozen when applied in Denmark (average of the year). The freezing or cooling of the products is not included. Other processes in wholesale are not taken into account. Eventual utilization of heat from cooling aggregates has not been considered.


The present data are acquired from one supplier of cooling systems and the representativity is unknown. Supposedly, the data provides a reasonable order of magnitude for modern cooling systems applied in Denmark today.


Electricity consumption for cool and frozen storage per unit of stored product is determined by five main factors: the storage temperature and room temperature, the daily praxis of the user, the applied cooling technology, the condition of the equipment and the degree of utilisation of the cooling capacity, and electricity consumption can vary a lot depending on the actual conditions. The present the data are same order of magnitude as previously reported from a Swedish study, see review by Carlsson-Kanyama (2000).

Inputs and outputs

Electricity consumption associated with cool and frozen storage.


Specific electricity consumption, Es

kWh per m3 per day 1)

Cool storage (5oC)


Frozen storage (-20oC)


1) For determination of potential environmental impacts associated with food products ex retail, it has been assumed that fresh fish and milk occupy space at 5oC for one day, that fresh butter, meat and cheese occupy space at 5oC for three days while frozen products occupy space at -20oC in three days.


Carlsson-Kanyama (2000): Energy use in the food sector - A data survey. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Naturvårdsverket. AFR-report 291.

Administrative information

Data URL:
Version no.: 1.00
Authors: Per H. Nielsen 2.-0 LCA Consultants.
Data entry: Data have been entered in this format by Per H. Nielsen.

Data completed: July 2003.