Cream (38%); with quotas (Fløde; med kvoter)
Cream is produced as a co-product during milk production. Cream is in excess in the market and excess cream is converted into butter and sold cheap in Russia and elsewhere. Thus, a marginal demand for cream influences butter production and exports to Russia etc. whereas it does not influence production processes in agriculture and milk dairies. See Weidema 2003.
The main processes influenced by a marginal cream (38%) demand ex dairy are shown in the figure below.
Avoided buttermilk production as a result of avoided butter production due to cream consumption leads to an increased skimmed milk demand for cream cheese production because buttermilk is assumed1) to displace skimmed milk. A demand for skimmed milk causes a reduced milk powder production as shown in the figure.
The table below shows potential environmental impacts associated with marginal cream (38%) demand. All data are provided per kg of cream.
Weidema B (2003). Market information in life cycle assessments. Technical report, Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Environmental Project no. 863 ).
1) The assumption that buttermilk displace skimmed milk in cheese production has been made after dialog with a dairy expert, but has not been further justified.