Node cut-off: 0.1%

Cream (38%); with quotas (Fløde; med kvoter)

Cream is produced as a co-product during milk production. Cream is in excess in the market and excess cream is converted into butter and sold cheap in Russia and elsewhere. Thus, a marginal demand for cream influences butter production and exports to Russia etc. whereas it does not influence production processes in agriculture and milk dairies. See Weidema 2003.

The main processes influenced by a marginal cream (38%) demand ex dairy are shown in the figure below.



Figure 1: Market based product chain diagram for cream covering the most important processes in terms of contribution to global warming. Boxes refer to production processes. Names of grey boxes refer to the main product of the processes. Green arrows represent saved material or energy transfer as a result of displacements and green lines represent displacements. Further details can be found in the LCA model.

Avoided buttermilk production as a result of avoided butter production due to cream consumption leads to an increased skimmed milk demand for cream cheese production because buttermilk is assumed1) to displace skimmed milk. A demand for skimmed milk causes a reduced milk powder production as shown  in the figure. 

The table below shows potential environmental impacts associated with marginal cream (38%) demand. All data are provided per kg of cream.

Impact category Unit Ex dairy

Ex retail





Global warming

g CO2-eq.






g SO2-eq.





Nutrient enrichment g NO3-eq. -0.17   0.40  
Smog formation g ethene eq. -0.027   0.063  
Eco-toxicity, soil m3 soil - - - -
Eco-toxicity, water m3 water - - - -
Land use m2 year 0   0  

Location in database: Material/Food from industry/From dairies/ and Materials/Food from supermarket/Milk counter/


Weidema B (2003). Market information in life cycle assessments. Technical report, Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Environmental Project no. 863 ).


1) The assumption that buttermilk displace skimmed milk in cheese production has been made after dialog with a dairy expert, but has not been further justified.