Industrial baking of bread (Industriel brødbagning)


Process description

The present data refer to industrial baking of wheat bread in Cerealia Unibake A/S (Karup) in 2000 where the main production processes are following: 1) ingredients such as flour, yeast, salt and sugar are delivered to the factory, 2) the ingredients are weighted out and mixed with water in a kneading machine to form the dough, 3) the dough is prepared automatically for the bread and left for rising, 4) the risen dough is baked in an oven, 5) the breads are cooled and packed in plastic bags and stored until transfer to the customers. The technology is modern with a high degree of automation. Wastewater generated during cleaning processes is diverted to municipal wastewater treatment.


Data collection and treatment

The considered bakery produces "hollow-baguettes" of different sizes and no other products. Average data on energy and water consumption have been determined by measurements related to production of 60 and 175 gram baguettes. These data have been used to estimate data on production of rolls respectively bread. Specific processes related to hollow-baguettes production have been eliminated to make data representative to wheat bread in general. Data on rye bread production are roughly estimated by extrapolation from large wheat breads. Ingredients are adjusted according to on rye bread recipes.

Technical scope

Production processes from receipt of ingredients to delivery at the factory's gate as well as administration are included. Flour and water are included whereas other ingredients (less than 5% by weight) and packaging are not. Wastewater and solid waste generation are not included because they are considered insignificant.


The considered bakery is highly specialized in a few kinds of wheat bread and hence very efficient. Most other bakeries are less specialized and the present data on energy and water consumption for wheat bread production are supposedly on the low side of an average for Danish bakeries. Data for rye bread should be considered as a pretty rough estimate.


The recorded primary energy consumption is at the same level as reported by Andersson and Ohlsson (1999).

Inputs and outputs

Inputs and outputs associated with industrial baking of bread are shown in the table below. Data are provided per kg non-frozen bread at the factory's gate without packaging. Frozen bread require about 0.2 kWh extra electricity per kg.





Unit Quantity
60 g
Wheat bread 175 g Rye bread
 500 g
Inputs Flour, wheat kg 0.7 0.7 0.2
  Flour, rye kg -- -- 0.5
  Water (ingredient) l 0.4 0.4 0.4
  Water (cleaning etc.) l 1.5 1.5 1.5
  Electricity kWh 0.05 0.02 0.02
  Heat MJ 2.0 1.0 1.0
Outputs Bread kg 1.0 1.0 1.0

Location in database: material/Food from industry/ from bakery and mill

Administrative information

Data URL:
Version no.: 1.00
Authors: Anne Merete Nielsen and Per H. Nielsen
, 2.-O LCA consultants.
Data entry: Data have been entered in this format by Anne Merete Nielsen and Per H. Nielsen.
Data completed: July 2003.


Andersson K and Ohlsson T (1999). Life Cycle Assessment of Bread Produced on Different Scales. International Journal of LCA. 4 (1) 25-40.