Flour and oat flakes production
(Produktion af mel og havregryn)


Flour is a white or brown powder that is made by grinding grain. It is used to make bread, cakes and pastry. Oat flakes is a cereal used mostly for breakfast.

Process description

The present data refer to flour production in Cerealia Mills, Denmark in 2001 where the main production processes are following: 1) grain delivered from farms by trucks or ships are cleared of impurities and stored in silos, 2) the grains are moistened with freshwater 3) the moist grains are grinded at different kinds of rolls, 4) the product of grinding (flour and residues such as bran) of different qualities are sorted and ascorbic acid is eventually added 5) the products are controlled, packed and stored before distribution to the market. Bran is used for food and feed products. The technology is modern with a high degree of automation. Wastewater generated during cleaning processes is diverted to municipal wastewater treatment.

Data collection and treatment

Data on energy and water consumption are in the same order of magnitude for all products produced at the mill and extracted as an average representing all products from the factory’s environmental management system.


Data on product and bi-product production as well as ascorbic acid consumption are estimated based on production statistics for Cerealia Mills, Denmark, in the period 1992-2002.


Technical scope

Production processes from receipt of grains to delivery at the factory's gate as well as administration are included. Data on energy and water include administration from other units in the organization and data on water and energy consumption may be sligtly overestimated.


Fungicides and insecticides applied in the factory are not included. Packaging and wastewater generation are not included.


About 60% of Denmark's flour and oat flakes production are covered with the present data. Similar technology is used in other mills in Denmark. Oat flakes production requires slightly more energy and water than other products and data on oat flakes production may be somewhat underestimated. Production of oat flakes constitutes a minor part of the total production in the considered factory and data on other products are not correspondingly overestimated.



The present data are generally in agreement with data from other units in Cerealia Mills.

Inputs and outputs

Inputs and outputs associated with flour and oat flakes production. Data are provided per kg flour/oatflakes at the factory's gate.

Inputs   Unit Wheat flour Rye flour Oat flakes
  Grain kg 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Water l 0.1 0.1 0.1
  Natural gas kWh 0.1 0.1 0.1
  Electricity kWh 0.08 0.08 0.08
  Ascorbic acid mg 40  0.0 0.0 
Outputs  Flour kg 0.8 0.7  0.6
  Bran etc. kg 0.2 0.3 0.4
  Solid waste kg 0.01 0.03 0.05

Location in database: Material/Food from industry/From backery and mill/

Administrative information

Data URL: http://www.lcafood.dk/processes/industry/flourproduction.html

Version no.: 1.00
Authors: Anne Merete Nielsen and Per H. Nielsen,
2.-O LCA consultants
Data entry: Data have been entered in this format by Anne Merete Nielsen and Per H. Nielsen.
Data completed: July 2003.



Personal communication with Charlotte Feldvoss, Cerealia Mills.