Freshwater supply (Ferskvandsforsyning)


Freshwater is used in all processes in the food products' product chains.

Process description

The present data refer to freshwater production and distribution in the Copenhagen area, Denmark. Groundwater is the main source of freshwater (99%) in this area and the water is obtained by suction from the ground. After a minor treatment (oxygenation, filtering and storage) the water is distributed to consumers by pumping. The groundwater is high quality, the distribution is safe and tap water is portable.

Data collection and treatment

The present data are obtained directly from Copenhagen Water's green account 1999. Original data are derived from 7 waterworks with 756 wells. The data presented here are average hereof.

Technical scope

Electricity consumption associated with pumping from the ground to the consumer as well as consumption of chemicals due to water treatment processes are included. Construction of pipelines and waterworks are not included. Treatment of surface water (1% of total) has not been considered. Solid waste generation at water works has not been considered.


The present data provides a representative average of freshwater production and distribution in Copenhagen area. Freshwater production and distribution may be different in other parts of the country and the representativity on a national scale is unknown although inputs and outputs are supposedly the same order of magnitude.


Data have not been validated.

Inputs and outputs

Inputs and outputs associated with freshwater production are shown in the table below. Data are provided per m3 freshwater delivered at the consumers tap. The total electricity consumption of 0.36 kWh is a sum of 0.26 kwh for pumping and treatment and 0.1 kWh for distribution to consumers.

    Unit Quantity
Input Water in the ground m3


  Electricity kWh 0.36
  Sodiumhypochlorite g 4
  Ammoniumsulphate g 0.46
  Sodiumhydroxide g 0.06


Output Water in the    consumer's tap m3


Location in database: Material/Others/Water (tap)


Københavns vand- grønt regnskab 1999.

Administrative information

Data URL:
Version no.: 1.00
Authors: Per H. Nielsen, 2.-0 LCA Consultants
Data entry: Data have been entered in this format by Per H. Nielsen
Data completed
July 2003.