Yellow cheese; with quotas
(Gul ost; med kvoter)


Yellow cheese is produced in dairies from milk produced at dairy farms. Cow milk is in excess in the market due to public regulations (quotas) and a marginal demand for yellow cheese does not influence milk production at the dairy farm. Excess milk is converted into milk powder and donated to developing countries. Cream and whey are generated as by products during cheese production. Whey is processed into whey powder and used for animal feed and it is assumed that 1.2 kg whey powder displaces 1 kg spring barley (Landbrugets rådgivningscenter, 2000). Excess cream is converted in to butter which is in excess in the market. The excess butter is exported to Russia and elsewhere and sold cheap.

The main processes influenced by a marginal demand for yellow cheese demand ex cheese dairy are shown in the diagram below.


Node cut-off: 1.5%

Figure 1:Market based product chain diagram for yellow cheese covering the most important processes in terms of contribution to global warming. Boxes refer to production processes. Names of grey boxes refer to the main product of the processes. Red arrows represent material or energy transfer between two processes; green arrows represent saved material or energy transfer as a result of displacements; green lines represent displacements and red lines represent avoided displacements. Further details can be found in the LCA model.

The table below shows potential environmental impacts associated with cheese demand ex dairy and ex retail. All data are provided per kg of cheese.

Impact category


Unit Ex dairy

Ex retail





Global warming

g CO2-eq.






g SO2-eq.





Nutrient enrichment g NO3-eq. -49   -48  
Photochemical smog g ethene eq. 0.02   0.07  
Land use m2 year -1.8   -1.8  

Location in database: Material/Food from industery/Food from dairies/cheese or Material/Food from supermarket/Milk counter/Cheese


Landbrugets rådgivningscenter (2000). Tal fra Fodermiddeltabellen, Raport nr. 91. In Danish.